モバイル金融サービスに挑む姿勢

アジアにもフィンテックの熱気が押し寄せてきています。フィンテックを活用した次世代型ビジネスモデルを模索している金融機関も多いことでしょう。6月に日本で金融機関と面談した際にも、先月、韓国でのインターネット専業銀行に関するカンファレンスで登壇した際にも、その熱気を実感しました。 韓国では現在、インターネット専業銀行の設立許可を巡り、議論が交わされています。韓国の人口5100万人に対し、モバイルバンキング(スマホアプリ)利用者は延べ約5000万人。これほどモバイルバンキングが普及している中で、インターネット専業銀行がどのように差別化できるのか、韓国のプレーヤーは頭を抱えています。 実際に、私がカンファレンスで登壇した時に日本のネット銀行の事例をお話しさせて頂いたのですが、発表後に多くの方が私のもとにやってきて、個別のミーティングをお願いしたいと列を成しました。その熱気は3月、登壇したカンファレンスの時よりも、より一層高まっていました。 アジア各国ではスマートフォンの普及に伴い、モバイルバンキングへの関心が高まっています。しかし焦点は既に、モバイルバンキング導入そのものではなく、他行といかに差別化できるのかという点にシフトしています。 アジアのモバイルバンキングの現状将来性に関するレポートを執筆する際に行ったインタビューでも、モバイルバンキングをもはや必須のチャネルとして認識している銀行が目立ちました。また、増加するサービス内容に比例して、複雑化するユーザーインタフェースを改良すべきだと考える銀行も多いようです。 銀行はセキュリティ関連には敏感である一方、機能の高度化といったIT投資にはさほど積極的ではなく、ユーザーエクスペリエンス向上など、顧客目線を重視した戦略に注視しています。つまりモバイルバンキングの議論の中心は、テクノロジーではなくビジネスモデルであるということです。 銀行にモバイルバンキングの波が押し寄せている中、各チャネルの戦略も変わりつつあります。モバイルバンキングで処理できる部分が増えることで、インターネットバンキング自体の役割は少しずつ縮小されてきており、特にリテール部門ではモバイルバンキングの存在感が増してきています。また、テラーの役割も高度化の道をたどっており、以前よりも専門性を求められるチャネルになりつつあります。 このようにチャネルの変化が目まぐるしい中、銀行は、自らがどのように対応していくべきか、足早に調査・研究していく必要があるでしょう。コメントやご見解など、ぜひお聞かせください。

Pushing beyond apps

It struck me while I was driving this morning: First-gen mobile apps are fine, but virtually everyone is missing high-volume opportunities to engage with their customers. Allow me to back up a step. I was stuck in traffic. Not surprisingly, that gave me some time to ponder my driving experience. I found myself thinking: Why can’t I give my car’s navigation system deep personalizations to help it think the way I do? And how do I get around its singular focus on getting from Point A to Point B? I explored the system while at a red light. It had jammed me onto yet another “Fastest Route,” disguised as a parking lot. My tweaks to the system didn’t seem to help. I decided what I’d really like is a Creativity slider so I could tell my nav how far out there to be in determining my route. Suburban side streets, public transportation, going north to eventually head south, and even well-connected parking lots are all nominally on the table when I’m at the helm. So why can’t I tell my nav to think like me? I’d also like a more personal, periodic verbal update on my likely arrival time, which over the course of my trip this morning went from 38 minutes to almost twice that due to traffic. The time element is important, of course. But maybe my nav system should sense when I’m agitated (a combination of wearables and telematics would be a strong indicator) and do something to keep me from going off the deep end. Jokes? Soothing music? Directions to highly-rated nearby bakeries? Words of serenity? More configurability is required, obviously, or some really clever automated customization. Then an even more radical thought struck. Why couldn’t my nav help me navigate not only my trip but my morning as well? “Mr. Weber, you will be in heavy traffic for the next 20 minutes. Shall I read through your unopened emails for you while you wait?” Or, “Your calendar indicates that you have an appointment before your anticipated arrival time. Shall I email the participants to let them know you’re running late?” Or (perhaps if I’m not that agitated), “While you have a few minutes would you like to check your bank balances, or talk to someone about your auto insurance renewal which is due in 10 days?” What I’m describing here is a level of engagement between me and my mobile devices which is difficult to foster, for both technical and psychological reasons. And it doesn’t work if a nav system is simply a nav system that doesn’t have contextual information about the user. But imagine the benefits if the navigation company, a financial institution, and other consumer-focused firms thought through the consumer experience more holistically. By sensibly injecting themselves into consumers’ daily routines—even when those routines are stressful—companies will have a powerful connection to their customers that will be almost impossible to dislodge. Firms like Google have started down this path, but financial institutions need to push their way into the conversation as well.

Mobile Payments in Southeast Asia

With the rapid growth of smartphone penetration in Southeast Asia, e-commerce and mobile commerce is one of the hottest issues in the region. Not only local players but also global e-commerce players have entered into the region to expand their business. However, a number of Southeast Asian countries still have low banking account penetration rates, hence people may not have access to payment methods for e-commerce and mobile commerce. Mobile payments may be one of the solutions for e-commerce payment. With the growing popularity of e-commerce and m-commerce, mobile payments is receiving more attention than before. Not only global mobile payments players such as PayPal but also local players like MOL, Fasspay, 2C2P, Smart Money, and GCash operate business in Southeast Asia. Some Southeast Asian countries still have a relatively high level of unbanked population but mobile payments is rapidly being accepted in the region because smartphone penetration rates are growing much faster than bank account penetration rates.  Also, people can hold a mobile payments account without a banking account at some mobile payments services. However, there are some obstacles to the future growth of mobile payments in Southeast Asia. A number of people are not well aware of mobile payments services, hence mobile payments players should invest more into marketing activities, although investment in infrastructure and equipment is also important. A number of payments players are considering entering into the Southeast Asian mobile payments market, but they may face difficulties to set up their business in the region. Each country has different regulations, telecommunications infrastructure, payments infrastructure and financial environment. Players who consider entering into the market should develop strategies to fit each country’s conditions. Celent believes that mobile payments in Southeast Asia will grow strongly for the next few years because the infrastructure is already in hand and smartphone penetration is still growing swiftly. Celent will keep an eye on this trend and update the trends in upcoming reports and blogs.

Alipay Entering into South Korean Market

During the Lunar New Year, more than 100,000 Chinese visited South Korea. The way people shop in a duty free shop, or in a convenience store is quite different than before: They pay with the world’s well-known Chinese mobile payment, Alipay, the most successful case of Fintech in the world. In Seoul main streets and on Korean internet sites, we can easily find advertisements of Alipay. China UnionPay already entered into the South Korean market, and even a brand of my credit card issued in South Korea is UnionPay. They partner with BC Card, South Korea’s card issuer and they have been expanding their business in South Korea. China’s payment has entered into South Korean market in earnest and South Korean players have been getting into the game. T-money, the largest prepaid card player in South Korea and Hana Bank, the fourth largest bank in South Korea partnered with Alipay. As an example, Chinese tourists in South Korea can pay back to Alipay’s account after using T-money for foreigners if they have any remaining credits. T-money is available not only transportation including metro, bus and taxi but also for payments at convenience stores and other selected shops. Also, T-money has introduced a new service for domestic users, providing compensation system for Mobile T-money when a user loses a phone, providing a safer environment for T-money users. For Hana Bank, they haven’t started a service with Alipay but it will be launched soon. After launching a new service with Alipay, Chinese tourists will be able to pay with Alipay at merchants of Hana Bank. In other words, they can use Alipay in broader places like orthopaedics, nail salon and hair salon than what T-money service offers. The similar case has been seen in South Korea and Japan. Cashbee, South Korea’s mobile payment card partnered with Japan’s three major MNOs, NTT DoCoMo, KDDI and Softbank. Japanese tourists can now pay with their smartphone in South Korea after installing a dedicated application. A wave of Fintech has come to Korea. The country is attempting a different approach with the use of Fintech. Some players already recognized their current approach is not acceptable anymore hence it is the time to shift their strategy for future growth. Payments area has been getting global and more attractive for users. For example, Alipay gives 4.5% interest when a user deposits money. Yes, it’s attractive. However, players should evaluate what is important for their future growth without tapping into the current trend. Establishing an initiative for business growth should be the overriding concern now amid mounting attention to Fintech.

デジタル時代の金融サービス業

前稿では、デジタル技術がドライブする、モジュール化と製販分離の可能性について論述した。本稿では、その続編として、デジタル技術が加速する他の2つの兆候、オムニチャネルとセルフサービスについて言及する。イノベーションを実現するデジタル技術は既に手中にある。課題は、その適用機会と、それによるディスラプティブな変化の誘導にある。

金融商品は元来、商品そのもの実現価値で積極的な差別化が図りにくい財であり、単純な価格競争に巻き込まれやすい。抜本的なコスト構造の変革は、これまでの販売チャネルの変化を大きく超え、金融サービス業の組織構造やビジネスモデルの変革を伴うなかで、意図的に実現するものである。

 

ソーシャルとローカルな対応:オムニチャネル対応
金融サービスにおける顧客関係の変化も、その変化の活用は新たな販売チャネルの構築に欠かせない。デジタル技術は、顧客の行動様式を変えた。アナログレコードや電報が日常生活から消滅したように、銀行の支店で振込をしたり、証券会社の店頭で株式を購入する金融サービスの消費行動もほぼ消滅した。来店型保険ショップやそのネット販売において、複数の保険会社に跨る、生命保険、損害保険のワンストップの乗換提案を受けることも、日常化しつつある。デジタルネイティブ世代の金融サービス取引性向は明らかに変化し、金融サービス業は正に、SoLoMo(ソーシャル、ローカル、モバイル)時代の渦中にあり、そこでは、オムニチャネル(Omnichannel)対応は必然であろう。

変わったことは、金融サービスへの需要(ニーズ)ではなく、金融サービスの行動様式(利用パターン)である。

銀行サービスに関しては、もはや誰も疑わないであろう。検索エンジンを使い、金利と取引条件を調べ、ソーシャルネットワークのレビューで口コミ情報を確認する。新たな口座の開設すら電話や郵便、ネットで完結し、日々の取引はネットとATMのみで行う。今や、銀行サービスの差別化要素は、インターネットバンキングの使いやすさと、無料開放のATMネットワーク網となった。もはや、リテールバンキングにおいては、顧客が自ら銀行に足を運ぶのはクレームと解約の時だけであり、大きなインセンティブ無しに、セールスの場としての支店への顧客招致は出来ない。モバイルやソーシャルチャネルの導入を躊躇していては、顧客との距離は離れるばかりで、顧客の金融サービスの利用パターンの変化を見失ってしまう。

証券サービスにおいては、FIXプロトコルとSTP ( Straight Through Processing ) の推進は機関投資家や個人投資家に、新たな収益機会をもたらすのみならず、電子取引、アルゴリズム取引、HFT、SORなど、業界地図を塗り替えるトレンドの誘因となった。機関投資家におけるHFT(高頻度取引)や電子取引比率の高揚、個人投資家にデイトレーダーやオンライン証券の隆盛は、業界構造に破壊的な変化をもたらした。

保険サービスはどうか。顧客の保険リテラシーの向上は、「勧められる」から「比較する」時代への変化を加速する。主体的な保険取引の行動様式に合致した販売チャネルを構想する時、銀行サービス、証券サービス、ひいては、小売市場全般におけるオムニチャネルの動向は看過できない。特に、O2O (Online to Offline)コミュニケーションや‘People like you’ 機能(例:これを買った人はこれも買っています)など、デジタルネイティブチャネルのマーケティング手法が、保険販売チャネルの常識となる日も遠くないだろう。

 

セルフサービスと事務処理完結:金融サービス業のSTP
テクノロジーの観点からは、金融業界での取り組みは、共通する要素が多い。銀行ATMの普及はリテール銀行の店頭から現金処理を駆逐し、オンラインバンキングやオンライントレーディングは小口で高頻度な金融取引をセルフサービスへ誘導した。いずれも、顧客利便性を向上させると同時に、金融機関の事務処理コストを低下させた。保険業界においても、保険料収入のキャッシュレス化やオンライン取引による保険資料請求などは既に普及している。

一方で、業界や個別金融機関に固有な文書やメッセージ形式が災いし、複雑な商品の事務手続きは、業務プロセスの自動化(STP:Straight Through Processing)にほど遠い。このことは、事務コストや金融取引リスクのみならず、販売チャネルの多様化においても、大きな障壁となる。

銀行における住宅ローンも、デジタル化やSTPが遅れた商品の典型であろう。顧客のローンリテラシーの向上は、「勧められる」から「比較する」時代への変化を加速する。更に、金融サービスへの需要(ニーズ)ではなく、金融サービスの行動様式(利用パターン)の変化も見逃せない。ローン商品は、消費者の購買行動に付随的に、または、同時発生的にその需要が生じる。どれだけ魅力的な新型ローンの広告宣伝がなされても、ローンを必要とする高額商品の購入タイミングで無い消費者にはノイズに過ぎない。伝統的に、宅建業者やカー・ディーラーは、こうした消費のタイミングにローンを結び付ける、いわば銀行にとってのローン販売チャネルであった。

今日、デジタル技術の普及は、この潮流をドライブし、デジタル化は全てを改善するキーテクノロジーとなろう。逆に、デジタル化出来ないプロセスは、極めて付加価値の高いプロセスか、削除すべき工程かもしれない。バックオフィスのBPO(Business Process Outsourcing)やシェアードサービスも有効な手段となる。ここでも、多様化は規模の経済、範囲の経済を通じて、新たな事業機会を産み、また、事務処理の改善のみならず、顧客接点の改善においても、セルフサービスと事務処理完結は、不可欠な対応と言える。もはや、デジタル化され自己完結していないプロセスは、顧客からも、販売チャネルからも選択されない。

一旦、デジタル技術が金融商品の事務処理における固有性を捨象すれば、消費者は、正に、適切な場所で、適切なタイミングで、適切な金融商品を選択し、購入、利用出来るようになる。住宅ローンに関して言えば、住宅購入に最適な場所、タイミングにおいて、最もふさわしいローン商品を推奨され、比較検討し、利用することが可能となる。銀行は、住宅ローンという金融商品の製造会社となり、宅建業者やハウス・メーカーは、その販売会社となりうる。銀行業の製販分離は、デジタルテクノロジーがドライブし、そのビジネスモデルを変革する。

2014/12/22(月曜日)に報道 された、凸版印刷 、東急リバブル、三菱東京UFJ銀行、三井住友信託銀行、ソニー銀行、三菱UFJ信託銀行の4行の取り組みに、その萌芽を見ることが出来る。

デジタルは、金融機関の内よりも外、顧客に近い場所ほど普及している。

 

凸版印刷、住宅ローン電子化システムの販売強化
http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDZ22I15_S4A221C1TJ1000/

不動産業界初、タブレット端末による『住宅ローン事前審査申込システム』を試行導入~お客様の利便性・情報セキュリティ・審査スピード向上を図る~
http://www.toppan.co.jp/news/2013/10/newsrelease131017_1.html

 

Potential Growth in South Korean banks

At first, I offer my condolences for the loss and missing of beloved families or friends at the South Korean ferry disaster. South Korean banks have faced difficulties in remaining the steady growth in the recent years. There are some reasons for this – a low economic growth and a low interest-rate environment. Banks in South Korea took action to reduce their staff to cut down the cost. The Asia Economy Daily said that 700 staff reduced in South Korean bank industry last year. Alsonches, a number of banks are considering or start reducing branches. In such a small country, there are thousands of bank branches at this moment. Celent believes that South Korean banks have a number of ways for the future growth with their experiences. For example, they can expand their business model or IT models to overseas. They have been trying these strategies for decades but it is difficult to find a “success” story. They should seek the various ways to bring their businesses to overseas. In the process, they may make some changes on their business models for oveaseas expansion. In South Korea, mobile banking services are advanced and activated. Celent believes that they have a number of case studies for mobile banking and mobile payment. They may introduce these to overseas, not only developing countries but advanced countries. In conclusion, they should study regulations, acceptable business models and IT trends in a country and should consider and study how their case studies are applied to each country beforehand.

Is a New Era for Japan’s Mobile Wallet Coming?

KDDI, a Japan’s mobile carrier, announced that they will launch “au Wallet”, mobile wallet which has both e-money and point reward program, in the coming May 2014. This mobile wallet is available for not only online shopping but also offline shopping at more than 30 million merchants. KDDI has pushed forward 3M strategy – multi-use, multi-network and multi-device a couple of years ago. As a part of that, they are launching new O2O (online-to-offline) payment service. “au Wallet” can be accessed from both PC and mobile devices and will used MasterCard prepaid payment system for their payment processes. Also, they have a unique function for point program. When customers use this mobile wallet, rewarding points will be saved up and customers can use reserved points for their mobile bill payments. KDDI has some 34 million customers as of February 2014 and based on the customer base, they are targeted to create US$ 12 billion O2O market by 2016. Also, they will utilize big data analysis to improve the service. p_besshi_01 Source: KDDI KDDI starts this service with a solid customer base and a significant number of acceptances. However, it might be difficult to meet the goal they are aimed at because it might take time to influence customer behaviours. In Japan, mobile payment has existed since before smartphones spread but Japan has not achieved great success in mobile payment. However, the situation surrounding mobile wallet has been changing little by little. In Japan, the number of smartphone users has been increasing steadily and smartphones spread at a certain extent and the number of e-money users has been growing firmly. Therefore, au Wallet has a enough potential to success in O2O market. To lead this service toward success, KDDI should be sensitive to customer behaviours and try to add new twists continuously to their mobile wallet service with their CRM analysis.

Is Mobile Payments Market in Japan Growing Or Not?

People think that Japan is one of the countries that is an early adopter of contactless mobile payments. We can certainly agree this is true. However, whether contactless mobile payments are common in Japan is another question. The answer is in fact “No”. In other words, mobile payment-enabled phones are widespread because many mobile phones are preloaded with the mobile payment function, but the active users are far less than the penetration of mobile payment enabled phones. As of August 2012, there are approximately 126 million mobile phone contracts in Japan. Among those, 58% or roughly 73 million mobile phones are embedded with a mobile payment chip. This is equivalent to 20% of all e-money cards / devices, which total about 180 million cards. How is the transaction volume? Monthly transaction volume of e-money, including not only mobile payments but plastic e-money, recorded 260 million in July 2012. That is, monthly transaction volume per card is only 1.5 transactions. Recently, smartphone subscriptions have been rapidly increasing and mobile payment embedded smartphones have also gradually penetrated. Approximately 34% or 10 million of smartphones have mobile payment chips, and of these 3 million subscribers use the mobile payment function. Does this seem like a high number? Smartphone users usually tend to prefer new things compared to feature phones users but merely 30% of mobile payment embedded mobile phone subscribers use mobile payments. Given the low transaction volume of all e-money cards, mobile payment registered users don’t seem to use mobile payment actively at this moment. It could be because of the lack of recognition of mobile payment or simply the lack of allure and advantage of mobile payment. That is why Celent estimates that the active users of mobile payment are 10% or less of mobile payments holders. A number of overseas media believe that mobile payments are very popular in Japan. However, it is not true. Yes, the infrastructure of mobile payments has been established well but the active users are not so many yet. To increase the number of active users, mobile payments players in Japan should not only preload mobile payment functions in mobile phones but also develop a strategy for promoting mobile payment effectively.

Insurance and Japan

One might naturally assume that the tragic events in northeastern Japan would also be devastating the Japanese insurance industry. By the beginning of April some 320,000 P&C claims related to the disasters had already been filed with insurers. After the Kobe earthquake of 1995, when many home and business owners discovered their policies did not cover the damage, people got in the habit of buying earthquake / tsunami insurance. So fortunately more properties were insured on 3/11 than may have been otherwise. In conversations with Japanese carriers, however, Celent has found that insurers are remarkably sanguine about the likely effect on the industry here. Firms say they have adequate reserves set aside precisely to cover an event of this magnitude, which has long been predicted. As a result, Celent expects that major Japanese insurers will continue to invest in strategic initiatives to boost competitiveness and lower costs in this very crowded market. IT spending growth at Japanese insurers, which has been close to flat for years anyway due to the maturity of the market, will suffer a modest dip in the short term. Smaller insurers are likely to put off renewal projects for a while. Pressure to merge will increase at some firms, but again the industry has seen a spate of consolidation activity in recent years already. The recent events are likely to encourage Japanese insurers to accelerate their international expansion efforts, which are already underway. Carriers have been looking abroad for growth opportunities, especially to the Asia Pacific region but further afield in the Americas and Europe as well. In Tokyo, along with the concern, there is a new competitive spirit in the air. April is the start of Japan’s fiscal year and businesses look determined to find ways to grow even as the economy is forecast to contract. The insurance industry would be no exception. For example, the past year has seen the emergence of new internet and mobile based distribution models and products, approaches which seem almost tailor-made for the post-3/11 era. Technology suppliers will want to know that amplified interest in business continuity is leading insurers to think seriously about cloud computing. The blooming sakura and early spring sunshine might be distracting me from some of the harsher realities of 21st century Japan. But certainly a little optimism is not misplaced in what is after all one of the world’s major insurance markets.